The 25th anniversary of the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries marks their wide-spread use in handheld consumer electronics and coincides with a period of intense efforts for powering electric vehicles. Managing the potent brew of lithium ions in the large quantities necessary for vehicle propulsion is anything but straightforward. From spacecraft probes landing billion miles away from Earth to the daily commute of a hybrid electric automobile, they all require sophisticated battery management systems (BMS) based on controlengineering tools. The BMS is the brain of the battery system and is responsible for State of Charge (SOC),State of Health (SOH) and State of Power (SOP) estimation. The BMS relies on accurate prediction of complexelectrochemical, thermal and mechanical phenomena. This raises the question of model and parameteraccuracy. Moreover, if the cells are aging, which parameters should we adapt after leveraging limited sensorinformation from the measured terminal voltage and sparse surface temperatures? With such a frugal sensorset, what is the optimal sensor placement? To this end, control techniques and novel sensors that measure the cell swelling during lithium intercalation and thermal expansion will be presented. We will conclude by highlighting the fundamental difficulties that keep every battery control engineer awake, namely predicting local hot spots, detecting internal shorts, and managing the overwhelming energy released during a thermal runaway.
Speaker: Anna Stefanopoulou, Univ. of Michigan
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Stanford, CA 94305
Website: Click to Visit